Piri Reis Map
Piri Reis map,
a pre-modern world map, was discovered in 1929 following the conversion
of Topkapi Palace  into a museum. Compiled in 1513
by Piri Reis (full name Hadji Muhiddin Piri Ibn Hadji Mehmed),
Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer, the map was
based on earlier maps (including eight Ptolemaic maps from the era of
Alexander the Great, an Arabic map of India, various medieval European
maps [mappae mundi], four newly drawn Portuguese maps and allegedly the
“lost map of
The surviving fragment of the map details the
western coasts of Europe and Africa along with
eastern Brazil and various Atlantic
islands with some accuracy; other parts, however, are somewhat
ambiguous. Claims have
been made that the southern section (bottom) is an ice free
Antarctica (the map a
legacy of an ice age civilization or an extra-terrestrial
visitation) but more than likely it's the southernmost part of South
(Patagonia) or the, at the time, unknown land of the south Terra
controversial book entitled 1421: The Year China Discovered the World,
British submarine lieutenant-commander and amateur historian, asserts
the coast in question is indeed that of Antarctica and
alludes to the voyages of Chinese Admiral Zheng He (or more
specifically to Zheng’s Vice-Admiral Hong Bao) who, at the behest of
Yongle Emperor,  explored significant portions of the unknown world,
including allegedly (in the case of Hong Bao) Antarctica and Australia.
academician Charles Hapgood, an advocate of recent (catastrophic) pole
shift, claimed the map is proof positive of the exploratory efforts of
an unknown pre-classical civilization.
Gregory McIntosh claims the map was developed using Columbus’
cartographical input (Hispaniola is depicted with a north-south axis
similar to depictions of Japan on maps of the same era and the names of
many of the mainland ports and geographic points are found in the
Italian navigator’s texts)  and further, in rebuttal to Hapgood’s
theories, McIntosh also contends that the Piri Reis map is far from the
most accurate map of the sixteenth century and that many others such as
the Ribeiro maps of the 1520s and 30s or the Wright-Molyneux map of
are vastly superior.
The Piri Reis map is currently housed in the library, Topkapi
Palace, Istanbul, Turkey.
 Topkapi Palace (initial
construction 1459) was the main residence of the Ottoman Sultans and
seat of imperial power untill 1856 and the construction of the more up
to date Dolmabahce Palace. Topkapi Palace was transformed into a museum
by government decree April 3,1924.
 All attempts (including those of the Turkish government) to find
the "lost map of Columbus" have been unsuccessful.
 Though interesting, Menzies' book has been dismissed by mainstream
historians as little more than pseudohistorical fiction.
Born Zhu Di, May 2,1360, the Yongle Emperor was the third
Dynasty. Both forward looking and expansionist he sponsored the
enormous and long term (at least six of seven each larger and more
the one previous) Zheng He maritime expeditions.
Columbus mistakenly believed that Japan and Hispaniola were the same
island, that Cuba was part of the mainland and that the mainland was
the coast of Asia.
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